The background and pro and con arguments were written by ProCon.org staff based upon input from the following footnotes (directly referenced) and sources (used for general research and not directly referenced):
Footnotes:
  1. Joachim Schuz et al. "Cellular Telephone Use and Cancer Risk: Update of a Nationwide Danish Cohort" (215 KB) , Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Dec. 2006

  2. Erick Swanson, "Stop Freaking Out About Cell Phones," Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, Aug. 3, 2008

  3. Federal Communications Commission (FCC), "Guidelines for Evaluating the Environmental Effects of Radiofrequency Radiation" (90 KB) , 61 Federal Register 41,006, Aug. 7, 1996

  4. Federal Communications Commission (FCC), "Radio Frequency Safety," www.fcc.gov (accessed Aug. 24, 2009)

  5. Government Accountability Office (GAO), "Research and Regulatory Efforts on Mobile Phone Health Issues" (2.5 MB) , www.gao.gov, May 2001

  6. National Cancer Institute, "Cellular Telephone Use and Cancer Risk," www.cancer.gov (accessed Aug. 24, 2009)

  7. International Association for the Wireless Telecommunications Industry (CTIA), "CTIA Consumer Info: Driving Tips," www.ctia.org (accessed Aug. 24, 2009)

  8. Adam D. Thierer, "Here Come the Federal Cell Phone Cops," CATO Institute, www.cato.org, June 25, 2001

  9. R.J. Croft et al., "Mobile Phones and Brain Tumors: A Review of Epidemiological Research," Australasian Physical and Engineering Sciences in Medicine, Dec. 2008

  10. Christopher Baker, "Cell Phones for Safety and Security in Case of an Emergency," American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) Public Policy Institute, www.aarp.org, June 2006

  11. American Heart Association, "Pacemakers," www.americanheart.org (accessed Aug. 24, 2009)

  12. Lennart Hardell et al., "Meta-Analysis of Long-Term Mobile Phone Use and the Association With Brain Tumours," International Journal of Oncology, Mar. 2008

  13. MJ Schoemaker and AJ Swerdlow et al., "Mobile Phone Use and Risk of Acoustic Neuroma: Results of the Interphone Case-Control Study in Five North European Countries," British Journal of Cancer, Aug., 2005

  14. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), "NHTSA Policy and FAQs on Cellular Phone Use While Driving," www.nhtsa.dot.gov (accessed Aug. 24, 2009)

  15. George Carlo and Martin Schram, Cell Phones, Invisible Hazards in the Wireless Age, An Insiders Alarming Discoveries about Cancer and Genetic Damage, 2001

  16. David L. Strayer et al., "A Comparison of the Cell Phone Driver and the Drunk Driver," Human Factors, Summer 2006

  17. J. Wiart et al., "Analysis of RF Exposure in the Head Tissues of Children and Adults," Physics in Medicine and Biology, July, 2008

  18. Geoffry N. De Luliss et al., "Mobile Phone Radiation Induces Reactive Oxygen Species Production and DNA Damage in Human Spermatozo in Vitro," Public Library of Science One, July 31, 2009

  19. Ashok Agarwal, "Cell Phone Radiation Degrades Semen Quality," www.clevelandclinic.org (accessed Sep. 28, 2009)

  20. Joachim Schuz and Gunhild Waldemar et al., "Risks for Central Nervous System Diseases among Mobile Phone Subscribers: A Danish Retrospective Cohort Study," Public Library of Science One, Feb. 5, 2009

  21. US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), "Interference with Pacemakers and Other Medical Devices," www.fda.gov (accessed Aug. 24, 2009)

  22. Ben Charny, "Cell Phones: Too Hot to Handle?," news.cnet.com, Oct. 25, 2004

  23. Maria L. La Ganga, "San Francisco to Require Stores to List Cellphone Radiation Levels," Los Angeles Times, June 23, 2010

  24. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), "Status Summary: Using Wireless Communication Devices While Driving" (8 MB) , www.nytimes.com, July 2003

  25. Ronald B. Herberman, Statement at the Oversight and Government Reform Committee Hearing on "Tumors and Cell Phone Use: What the Science Says" (1 MB) , domesticpolicy.oversight.house.gov, Sep. 2008

  26. Dennis Kucinich, Opening Statement at the Oversight and Government Reform Committee Hearing on "Tumors and Cell Phone Use: What the Science Says" (19 KB) , domesticpolicy.oversight.house.gov, Sep. 2008

  27. Federal Communications Commission (FCC), "In the Matter of Responsibility of the Federal Communications Commission to Consider Biological Effects of Radiofrequency Radiation When Authorizing the Use of Radiofrequency Devices" (127 KB) , www.fcc.gov, Feb. 26, 1985

  28. State of New York, "§1225-c. Use of Mobile Telephones" (96 KB) , www.nysgtsc.state.ny.us, 2001

  29. State of Connecticut, "Public Act No. 05-159: An Act Concerning the Use of Hand-Held Mobile Telephones by Operators of Motor Vehicles" (66 KB) , www.cga.ct.gov, 2005

  30. State of California, "Hand-Held Wireless Telephone: Prohibited Use" (146 KB) , www.dmv.ca.gov, 2007

  31. State of New Jersey, "An Act Concerning the Use of Wireless Telephones and Electronic Communication Devices in Motor Vehicles and Amending P.L.2003, c.310" (12 KB) , www.njleg.state.nj.us, 2007

  32. State of Washington, "Using a Wireless Communications Device while Driving" (112 KB) , www.apps.leg.wa.gov, 2008

  33. State of Oregon, "House Bill 2377" (27 KB) , www.oregon.gov, 2009

  34. International Association for the Wireless Telecommunications Industry (CTIA), "Year End 2008 Estimated Wireless Subscribers" (70 KB) , www.ctia.org, 2009

  35. International Association for the Wireless Telecommunications Industry (CTIA), "Wireless Quick Facts" (142 KB) , www.ctia.org, 2009

  36. Elisabeth Cardis et al., "Brain Tumor Risk in Relation to Mobile Telephone Use: Results of the INTERPHONE International Case-Control Study" (3 KB) , International Journal of Epidemiology, May 17, 2010

  37. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), "IARC Classifies Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields as Possibly Carcinogenic to Humans" (249 KB) , www.iarc.fr, May 31, 2011

  38. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), "Agents Classified by the IARC Monography, Volumes 1-100" (98 KB) , www.iarc.fr (accessed May 31, 2011)

  39. Patrizia Frei, Aslak H. Poulsen, Christoffer Johansen, Jørgen H. Olsen, Marianne Steding-Jessen, and Joachim Schüz, "Use of Mobile Phones and Risk of Brain Tumors: Update of a Danish Cohort Study" (392 KB) , British Medical Journal, Oct. 20, 2011

  40. Library of Congress, "Italy: Supreme Court Ruling on Mobile Phones and Tumors," www.loc.gov, Oct. 23, 2012

  41. H. Collatz Christensen, et al., "Cellular Telephones and Risk for Brain Tumors," Neurology, July 20, 2005

  42. Stefan Lönn, et al., "Long-Term Mobile Phone Use and Brain Tumor Risk," American Journal of Epidemiology," 2005

  43. National Brain Tumor Society (NBTS), "NBTS Funds Groundbreaking Study on Prevalence of Brain Tumors," braintumor.org (accessed July 22, 2013)

  44. CTIA-The Wireless Association, "Annual Wireless Industry Survey," ctia.org, 2015
  45. Victoria S. Benson, et al., "Mobile Phone Use and Risk of Brain Neoplasms and Other Cancers," International Journal of Epidemiology," May 8, 2013

  46. Peter D. Inskip, et al., "Cellular-Telephone Use and Brain Tumors," The New England Journal of Medicine, Jan. 11, 2001

  47. US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), "No Evidence Linking Cell Phone Use to Risk of Brain Tumors," fda.gov, May 17, 2010

  48. Federal Communications Commission (FCC), "Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) for Cell Phones: What It Means for You," fcc.gov, Jan. 18, 2013

  49. Hsu, Min-Huei, et al., "The Incidence Rate and Mortality of Malignant Brain Tumors after 10 Years of Intensive Cell Phone Use in Taiwan," European Journal of Cancer Prevention," Apr. 14, 2013

  50. Denis Aydin, et al., "Mobile Phone Use and Brain Tumors in Children and Adolescents: A Multicenter Case–Control Study," Journal of the National Cancer Institute, July 27, 2011

  51. Vini G. Khurana, et al., "Cell Phones and Brain Tumors: A Review Including the Long-Term Epidemiologic Data," Surgical Neurology, Mar. 31, 2009

  52. Lennart Hardell, et al., "Use of Mobile Phones and Cordless Phones Is Associated with Increased Risk for Glioma and Acoustic Neuroma," Pathophysiology, Apr. 2013

  53. Michael Carlberg, et al., "On the Association between Glioma, Wireless Phones, Heredity and Ionising Radiation," Pathophysiology, Sep. 2012

  54. E. Cardis, et al., "Risk of Brain Tumors in Relation to Estimated RF Dose from Mobile Phones: Results from Five Interphone Countries," Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2011

  55. Devra Lee Davis, et al., "Swedish Review Strengthens Grounds for Concluding That Radiation from Cellular and Cordless Phones Is a Probable Human Carcinogen," Pathophysiology, Apr. 2013

  56. Environmental Health Trust, "Press Release: Top Doctors Urge Cell Phone Companies to Come Clean on Health Dangers Posed by Radiation," ehtrust.org, June 23, 2011

  57. The INTERPHONE Study Group, "Brain Tumour Risk in Relation to Mobile Telephone Use: Results of the INTERPHONE International Case–Control Study," International Journal of Epidemiology, May 17, 2010

  58. Rodolfo Saracci, et al., "Commentary: Call Me on My Mobile Phone...or Better Not? - A Look at the INTERPHONE Study Results," International Journal of Epidemiology, May 17, 2010

  59. Izzet Tandogan, et al., "The Effects of Mobile Phones on Pacemaker Funciton," International Journal of Cardiology, Aug. 2005

  60. American Heart Association (AHA), "Devices That May Interfere with Pacemakers," heart.org, Aug. 16, 2012

  61. Emin Karaca, et al., "The Genotoxic Effect of Radiofrequency Waves on Mouse Brain," Journal of Neuro-Oncology, Jan. 2012

  62. Hugo W. Ruediger, "Genotoxic Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields," Pathophysiology, Aug. 2009

  63. Sophy Bishop, "At Center for Ethics Event, Cell Phone Radiation and Institutional Corruption Addressed," law.harvard.edu, Nov. 18, 2011

  64. Dandro La Vignera, et al., "Effects of the Exposure to Mobile Phones on Male Reproduction: A Review of the Literature," Journal of Andrology, May-June 2012

  65. Hozefa A. Divan and Leeka Kheifets, et al., "Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to Cell Phone Use and Behavioral Problems in Children," Epidemiology, Nov. 2008

  66. Tamir S. Aldad, Geliang Ban, Xiao-Bing Gao, and Hugh S. Taylor, "Fetal Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure From 800-1900 Mhz-Rated Cellular Telephones Affects Neurodevelopment and Behavior in Mice," Scientific Reports, Mar. 15, 2012

  67. Hozefa A. Divan and Leeka Kheifets, et al., "Cell Phone Use and Behavioural Problems in Young Children," Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Dec. 2010

  68. Bonnie Rochman, "Pediatricians Say Cell Phone Radiation Standards Need Another Look," healthland.time.com, July 20, 2012

  69. US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), "Current Research Results," fda.gov, June 24, 2011

  70. CTIA-The Wireless Association, "50 Wireless Quick Facts III," ctia.org, May 2013

  71. US Census Bureau, "Annual Estimates of the Population for the United States, Regions, and Divisions: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2003," census.gov, May 11, 2004

  72. Centers for Disease Control (CDC), "Frequently Asked Questions about Cell Phones and Your Health," cdc.gov (accessed 9/6/2013)

  73. Siddhartha Mukherjee, "Do Cellphones Cause Brain Cancer?," nytimes.com, Apr. 13, 2011

  74. US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), "Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA)," fda.gov, May 4, 2009

  75. US Government and Accountability Office (GAO), "Exposure and Testing Requirements for Mobile Phones Should Be Reassessed," gao.gov, July 24, 2012

  76. Federal Communications Commission (FCC), "FCC Review of RF Exposure Policies," fcc.gov, Mar. 29, 2013

  77. Federal Communications Commission (FCC), "A Short History of Radio, with an Inside Focus on Mobile Radio," fcc.gov, Winter 2003-2004

  78. Federal Communications Commission (FCC), "History of Communications - Historical Periods in Television Technology: 1930-1959," fcc.gov, Nov. 21, 2005

  79. Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations of the United States Senate, "The Health Effects of Cell Phone Use," gpo.gov, Sep. 14, 2009

  80. CTIA - The Wireless Association, "CTIA-The Wireless Association Filed Lawsuit Against San Francisco for the So-Called 'Cell Phone Right-to-Know' Ordinance," ctia.org, July 23, 2012

  81. Paul Elias, "San Francisco Cell Phone Radiation Law Blocked by Judge," huffingtonpost.com, Oct. 27, 2011

  82. Kent German, "San Francisco Finally Kills Cell Phone Radiation Law," news.cnet.com, May 8, 2013

  83. Nora D. Volkow, et al., "Effects of Cell Phone Radiofrequency Signal Exposure on Brain Glucose Metabolism," Journal of the American Medical Association, Feb. 23, 2011

  84. Lennart Hardel and Michael Carlberg, "Moblie Phone and Cordless Phone Use and the Risk for Glioma - Analysis of Pooled Case-Control Studies in Sweden, 1997-2003 and 2007-2009," Pathophysiology, Oct. 28, 2014

  85. US National Toxicology Program (NTP), "Report of Partial Findings from the National Toxicology Program Carcinogenesis Studies of Cell Phone Radiofrequency Radiation in Hsd: Sprague Dawley® SD rats (Whole Body Exposures)," biorxiv.org, May 26, 2016

  86. Warren Cornwall, "Questions Abound After Study Links Tumors to Cellphone Radiation," sciencemag.org, May 27, 2016


Sources:

Sherri Box, "New Data From Virginia Tech Transportation Institute Provides Insight Into Cell Phone Use and Driving Distraction," www.vtnews.vt.edu, July 29, 2009

Environmental Working Group (EWG), "Cell Phone Radiation: Science Review on Cancer Risks and Children's Health," www.ewg.org, Sep. 2009

Federal Communications Commission (FCC), "OET Bulletin 56: Questions and Answers about Biological Effects and Potential Hazards of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields," www.fcc.gov, Aug. 1999

Federal Communications Commission (FCC), "OET Bulletin 65: Evaluating Compliance With FCC Guidelines for Human Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields," www.fcc.gov, Aug. 1997

Federal Communications Commission (FCC), "Report and Order: In the Matter of Responsibility of the Federal Communications Commission to Consider Biological Effects of Radiofrequency Radiation When Authorizing the Use of Radiofrequency Devices," GEN Docket No. 79-144, 100 FCC 2d 543, Mar. 1985

Lennart Hardell et al., "Pooled Analysis of Two Case-Control Studies on the Use of Cellular and Cordelss Telephones and the Risk of Benign Brain Tumors Diagnosed During 1997-2003," International Journal of Oncology, Feb., 2006

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), "The INTERPHONE Study," www.iarc.fr (accessed Aug. 24, 2009)

International EMF Collaborative, "Cellphones and Brain Tumors: 15 Reasons for Concern," www.radiationresearch.org, Aug. 25, 2009

Sue Kovach, "The Hidden Dangers of Cell Phone Radiation," Life Extension magazine, Aug. 2007

National Academies of Science (NAS) "Identification of Research Needs Relating to Potential Biological or Adverse Health Effects of Wireless Communication," www.nap.edu, 2008

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), "Status Summary: Using Wireless Communication Devices While Driving," www.nytimes.com, July 2003

National Highway Traffic Saftey Administration (NHTSA), "Traffic Safety Facts: Driver Cell Phone Use in 2006 - Overall Results," www.nhtsa.gov, July 2007

Ray Suzrez, "Cell Phone Use Raises Risks While Driving, Studies Show," www.pbs.org, July 28, 2009