Last updated on: 11/9/2018 | Author:


The background and pro and con arguments were written by staff based upon input from the following sources.


1.Joachim Schuz et al. "Cellular Telephone Use and Cancer Risk: Update of a Nationwide Danish Cohort," Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Dec. 2006
2.Erick Swanson, "Stop Freaking Out About Cell Phones," Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, Aug. 3, 2008
3.Federal Communications Commission (FCC), "Guidelines for Evaluating the Environmental Effects of Radiofrequency Radiation," Federal Register, Aug. 7, 1996
4.Federal Communications Commission (FCC), "Radio Frequency Safety," (accessed Aug. 24, 2009)
5.Government Accountability Office (GAO), "Research and Regulatory Efforts on Mobile Phone Health Issues,", May 2001
6.National Cancer Institute, "Cellular Telephone Use and Cancer Risk," (accessed Aug. 24, 2009)
7.International Association for the Wireless Telecommunications Industry (CTIA), "CTIA Consumer Info: Driving Tips," (accessed Aug. 24, 2009)
8.Adam D. Thierer, "Here Come the Federal Cell Phone Cops," CATO Institute,, June 25, 2001
9.R.J. Croft et al., "Mobile Phones and Brain Tumors: A Review of Epidemiological Research," Australasian Physical and Engineering Sciences in Medicine, Dec. 2008
10.Christopher Baker, "Cell Phones for Safety and Security in Case of an Emergency," American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) Public Policy Institute,, June 2006
11.American Heart Association, "Pacemakers," (accessed Aug. 24, 2009)
12.Lennart Hardell et al., "Meta-Analysis of Long-Term Mobile Phone Use and the Association With Brain Tumours," International Journal of Oncology, Mar. 2008
13.MJ Schoemaker, et al., "Mobile Phone Use and Risk of Acoustic Neuroma: Results of the Interphone Case-Control Study in Five North European Countries," British Journal of Cancer, Aug., 2005
14.National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), "NHTSA Policy and FAQs on Cellular Phone Use While Driving," (accessed Aug. 24, 2009)
15.George Carlo and Martin Schram, Cell Phones, Invisible Hazards in the Wireless Age, An Insiders Alarming Discoveries about Cancer and Genetic Damage, 2001
16.David L. Strayer et al., "A Comparison of the Cell Phone Driver and the Drunk Driver," Human Factors, Summer 2006
17.J. Wiart et al., "Analysis of RF Exposure in the Head Tissues of Children and Adults," Physics in Medicine and Biology, July, 2008
18.Geoffry N. De Luliss et al., "Mobile Phone Radiation Induces Reactive Oxygen Species Production and DNA Damage in Human Spermatozo in Vitro," Public Library of Science One, July 31, 2009
19.Ashok Agarwal, "Cell Phone Radiation Degrades Semen Quality," (accessed Sep. 28, 2009)
20.Joachim Schuz, et al., "Risks for Central Nervous System Diseases among Mobile Phone Subscribers: A Danish Retrospective Cohort Study," Public Library of Science One, Feb. 5, 2009
21.US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), "Interference with Pacemakers and Other Medical Devices," (accessed Aug. 24, 2009)
22.Ben Charny, "Cell Phones: Too Hot to Handle?,", Oct. 25, 2004
23.Maria L. La Ganga, "San Francisco to Require Stores to List Cellphone Radiation Levels," Los Angeles Times, June 23, 2010
24.National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), "Status Summary: Using Wireless Communication Devices While Driving,", July 2003
25.Ronald B. Herberman, Statement at the Oversight and Government Reform Committee Hearing on "Tumors and Cell Phone Use: What the Science Says,", Sep. 2008
26.Dennis Kucinich, Opening Statement at the Oversight and Government Reform Committee Hearing on "Tumors and Cell Phone Use: What the Science Says,", Sep. 2008
27.Federal Communications Commission (FCC), "In the Matter of Responsibility of the Federal Communications Commission to Consider Biological Effects of Radiofrequency Radiation When Authorizing the Use of Radiofrequency Devices,", Feb. 26, 1985
28.State of New York, "§1225-c. Use of Mobile Telephones,", 2001
29.State of Connecticut, "Public Act No. 05-159: An Act Concerning the Use of Hand-Held Mobile Telephones by Operators of Motor Vehicles,", 2005
30.State of California, "Hand-Held Wireless Telephone: Prohibited Use,", 2007
31.State of New Jersey, "An Act Concerning the Use of Wireless Telephones and Electronic Communication Devices in Motor Vehicles and Amending P.L.2003, c.310,", 2007
32.State of Washington, "Using a Wireless Communications Device while Driving,", 2008
33.State of Oregon, "House Bill 2377,", 2009
34.International Association for the Wireless Telecommunications Industry (CTIA), "Year End 2008 Estimated Wireless Subscribers,", 2009
35.International Association for the Wireless Telecommunications Industry (CTIA), "Wireless Quick Facts,", 2009
36.Elisabeth Cardis et al., "Brain Tumor Risk in Relation to Mobile Telephone Use: Results of the INTERPHONE International Case-Control Study," International Journal of Epidemiology, May 17, 2010
37.International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), "IARC Classifies Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields as Possibly Carcinogenic to Humans,", May 31, 2011
38.International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), "Agents Classified by the IARC Monography, Volumes 1-100," (accessed May 31, 2011)
39.Patrizia Frei, et al., "Use of Mobile Phones and Risk of Brain Tumors: Update of a Danish Cohort Study," British Medical Journal, Oct. 20, 2011
40.Library of Congress, "Italy: Supreme Court Ruling on Mobile Phones and Tumors,", Oct. 23, 2012
41.H. Collatz Christensen, et al., "Cellular Telephones and Risk for Brain Tumors," Neurology, July 20, 2005
42.Stefan Lönn, et al., "Long-Term Mobile Phone Use and Brain Tumor Risk," American Journal of Epidemiology," 2005
43.National Brain Tumor Society (NBTS), "NBTS Funds Groundbreaking Study on Prevalence of Brain Tumors," (accessed July 22, 2013)
44.CTIA-The Wireless Association, "Annual Wireless Industry Survey,", 2015
45.Victoria S. Benson, et al., "Mobile Phone Use and Risk of Brain Neoplasms and Other Cancers," International Journal of Epidemiology," May 8, 2013
46.Peter D. Inskip, et al., "Cellular-Telephone Use and Brain Tumors," The New England Journal of Medicine, Jan. 11, 2001
47.US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), "No Evidence Linking Cell Phone Use to Risk of Brain Tumors,", May 17, 2010
48.Federal Communications Commission (FCC), "Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) for Cell Phones: What It Means for You,", Jan. 18, 2013
49.Hsu, Min-Huei, et al., "The Incidence Rate and Mortality of Malignant Brain Tumors after 10 Years of Intensive Cell Phone Use in Taiwan," European Journal of Cancer Prevention," Apr. 14, 2013
50.Denis Aydin, et al., "Mobile Phone Use and Brain Tumors in Children and Adolescents: A Multicenter Case–Control Study," Journal of the National Cancer Institute, July 27, 2011
51.Vini G. Khurana, et al., "Cell Phones and Brain Tumors: A Review Including the Long-Term Epidemiologic Data," Surgical Neurology, Mar. 31, 2009
52.Lennart Hardell, et al., "Use of Mobile Phones and Cordless Phones Is Associated with Increased Risk for Glioma and Acoustic Neuroma," Pathophysiology, Apr. 2013
53.Michael Carlberg, et al., "On the Association between Glioma, Wireless Phones, Heredity and Ionising Radiation," Pathophysiology, Sep. 2012
54.E. Cardis, et al., "Risk of Brain Tumors in Relation to Estimated RF Dose from Mobile Phones: Results from Five Interphone Countries," Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2011
55.Devra Lee Davis, et al., "Swedish Review Strengthens Grounds for Concluding That Radiation from Cellular and Cordless Phones Is a Probable Human Carcinogen," Pathophysiology, Apr. 2013
56.Environmental Health Trust, "Press Release: Top Doctors Urge Cell Phone Companies to Come Clean on Health Dangers Posed by Radiation,", June 23, 2011
57.The INTERPHONE Study Group, "Brain Tumour Risk in Relation to Mobile Telephone Use: Results of the INTERPHONE International Case–Control Study," International Journal of Epidemiology, May 17, 2010
58.Rodolfo Saracci, et al., "Commentary: Call Me on My Mobile Phone...or Better Not? - A Look at the INTERPHONE Study Results," International Journal of Epidemiology, May 17, 2010
59.Izzet Tandogan, et al., "The Effects of Mobile Phones on Pacemaker Function," International Journal of Cardiology, Aug. 2005
60.American Heart Association (AHA), "Devices That May Interfere with Pacemakers,", Aug. 16, 2012
61.Emin Karaca, et al., "The Genotoxic Effect of Radiofrequency Waves on Mouse Brain," Journal of Neuro-Oncology, Jan. 2012
62.Hugo W. Ruediger, "Genotoxic Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields," Pathophysiology, Aug. 2009
63.Sophy Bishop, "At Center for Ethics Event, Cell Phone Radiation and Institutional Corruption Addressed,", Nov. 18, 2011
64.Dandro La Vignera, et al., "Effects of the Exposure to Mobile Phones on Male Reproduction: A Review of the Literature," Journal of Andrology, May-June 2012
65.Hozefa A. Divan, et al., "Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to Cell Phone Use and Behavioral Problems in Children," Epidemiology, Nov. 2008
66.Tamir S. Aldad, Geliang Ban, Xiao-Bing Gao, and Hugh S. Taylor, "Fetal Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure From 800-1900 Mhz-Rated Cellular Telephones Affects Neurodevelopment and Behavior in Mice," Scientific Reports, Mar. 15, 2012
67.Hozefa A. Divan, et al., "Cell Phone Use and Behavioural Problems in Young Children," Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Dec. 2010
68.Bonnie Rochman, "Pediatricians Say Cell Phone Radiation Standards Need Another Look,", July 20, 2012
69.US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), "Current Research Results,", June 24, 2011
70.CTIA-The Wireless Association, "50 Wireless Quick Facts III,", May 2013
71.US Census Bureau, "Annual Estimates of the Population for the United States, Regions, and Divisions: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2003,", May 11, 2004
72.Centers for Disease Control (CDC), "Frequently Asked Questions about Cell Phones and Your Health," (accessed 9/6/2013)
73.Siddhartha Mukherjee, "Do Cellphones Cause Brain Cancer?,", Apr. 13, 2011
74.US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), "Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA),", May 4, 2009
75.US Government and Accountability Office (GAO), "Exposure and Testing Requirements for Mobile Phones Should Be Reassessed,", July 24, 2012
76.Federal Communications Commission (FCC), "FCC Review of RF Exposure Policies,", Mar. 29, 2013
77.Federal Communications Commission (FCC), "A Short History of Radio, with an Inside Focus on Mobile Radio,", Winter 2003-2004
78.Federal Communications Commission (FCC), "History of Communications - Historical Periods in Television Technology: 1930-1959,", Nov. 21, 2005
79.Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations of the United States Senate, "The Health Effects of Cell Phone Use,", Sep. 14, 2009
80.CTIA - The Wireless Association, "CTIA-The Wireless Association Filed Lawsuit Against San Francisco for the So-Called 'Cell Phone Right-to-Know' Ordinance,", July 23, 2012
81.Paul Elias, "San Francisco Cell Phone Radiation Law Blocked by Judge,", Oct. 27, 2011
82.Kent German, "San Francisco Finally Kills Cell Phone Radiation Law,", May 8, 2013
83.Nora D. Volkow, et al., "Effects of Cell Phone Radiofrequency Signal Exposure on Brain Glucose Metabolism," Journal of the American Medical Association, Feb. 23, 2011
84.Lennart Hardel and Michael Carlberg, "Moblie Phone and Cordless Phone Use and the Risk for Glioma - Analysis of Pooled Case-Control Studies in Sweden, 1997-2003 and 2007-2009," Pathophysiology, Oct. 28, 2014
85.US National Toxicology Program (NTP), "Report of Partial Findings from the National Toxicology Program Carcinogenesis Studies of Cell Phone Radiofrequency Radiation in Hsd: Sprague Dawley SD rats (Whole Body Exposures),", May 26, 2016
86.Warren Cornwall, "Questions Abound After Study Links Tumors to Cellphone Radiation,", May 27, 2016
87.National Toxicology Program, "Peer Review of the Draft NTP Technical Reports on Cell Phone Radiofrequency Radiation,", Nov. 1, 2018
88.United States Food and Drug Administration, "Statement from Jeffrey Shuren, MD, JD, Director of the FDA's Center for Devices and Radiological Health on the National Toxicology Program’s Report on Radiofrequency Energy Exposure,", Nov. 1, 2018
89.CTIA-The Wireless Association, "The State of Wireless,", July 10, 2018
90.Marguerite Reardon, "Is 5G Making You Sick? Probably Not,", July 30, 2020
91.Joel M. Moskowitz, "We Have No Reason to Believe 5G Is Safe,", October 17, 2019
92.Pew Research Center, "Mobile Fact Sheet,", Apr. 7, 2021
93.National Museum of American History, "Dynatac Cellular Telephone," (accessed June 22, 2021)
94.Erik Gregersen, et al., "Martin Cooper,", Dec. 22, 2020
95.Jane C. Hu, "Our Reliance on Cellphones Began 35 Years Ago Today,", Oct. 13, 2018
96.World Bank, "Mobile Cellular Subscriptions," (accessed June 22, 2021)
97.World Bank, "Population Total," (accessed June 22, 2021)
98.Mike Murphy, "Cellphones Now Outnumber the World’s Population,", Apr. 29, 2019
99.Ken Karipidis, et al., “Mobile Phone Use and Incidence of Brain Tumour Histological Types, Grading or Anatomical Location: A Population-Based Ecological Study,”, Dec. 2018
100.Matthew Tontonoz, “Do Cell Phones Cause Cancer?,”,
May 20, 2019
101.Retraction Watch, “‘Riddled with Errors’: Study of Cell Phones and Breast Cancer Retracted,”, Mar. 22, 2021
102.Ya-Wen Shih, et al., “Exposure to Radiofrequency Radiation Increases the Risk of Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta‑Analysis,”, Nov. 9, 2020
103.Naomi Altman and Martin Krzywinski, “Association, Correlation and Causation,”, Sep. 29, 2015
104.Paul J.Villeneuvea, et al., “Cell Phone Use and the Risk of Glioma: Are Case-Control Study Findings Consistent with Canadian Time Trends in Cancer Incidence?,”, May 21, 2021
105.Manya Prasad, et al., “Mobile Phone Use and Risk of Brain Tumours: A Systematic Review of Association between Study Quality, Source of Funding, and Research Outcomes,”, Feb, 17, 2017
106.National Toxicology Program, “Cell Phone Radio Frequency Radiation,” (accessed June 29, 2021)
107.National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, “High Exposure to Radio Frequency Radiation Associated With Cancer in Male Rats,”, Nov. 1, 2018
108.Suzanne Potter, “New Studies Link Cell Phones to Breast and Thyroid Cancer Risk,”, Dec. 15, 2020
109.National Cancer Institute, “Cancer Stat Facts: Brain and Other Nervous System Cancer,” (accessed June 29, 2021)
110.BrainLab, "How Common Are Brain Tumors?," (accessed June 29, 2021)
111.Lige Leng, "The Relationship Between Mobile Phone Use and Risk of Brain Tumor: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Trails in the Last Decade,", 2016